Project Management Assignment Sample

Project Planning and Restructure: General Manager Report for KFH

Introduction

Project design and management, both internal and external, are part of KFH’s reorganization. Because it makes it possible to identify the linkages between the persons and groups participating in the project inside the parent functional areas of the organization, the external level of project management is more significant (Harrison and Lock, 2004). The project strategy, budget, timeline, project evaluation, and participant roles will all be included in this report, which will also provide the KFH board with an acceptable project organization structure.

Organisational Structure

Functional project management of matrix projects is a function of the external organisational structure. Project management is the control of all areas by a single project manager, whereas functional management involves work being done in functional areas with each area operating autonomously (Brynjolfsson et al., 2012). In order to encourage cross-functional orientation, this research suggests using a matrix project management system, in which functional managers and project managers collaborate. As the project manager collaborates with the functional managers of the many departments to determine priorities, role clarity, and resource allocation, this research backs the development of a matrix organizational structure for the restructuring process.According to Soderlund (2011), matrix organisational structure is most effective in project restructuring as authority, responsibility and communication are present at the horizontal, vertical and diagonal levels. A matrix organisational approach is promoted as the process involves leveraging of resources, gaining functional expertise and maintaining the scope of the project.

The following Figure 1 presents the KFH organisational redesign structure, where individuals from different departments working on the project restructure are found to report to managers, functional managers and the project manager.

It is observed that a Restructure Project Task Force is to be established headed by the General Manager (Restructure Project Manager). Senior delegates from other departments are found to be part of this project task force; they handle the functional attributes of individual departments and report to the restructure project manager. The responsibilities of top members of the task force include:

      • CEO – The CEO is involved in the formation of the project task force, funding allocation and definition of project scope.

      • General Manager (Restructure Project Manager) – The general manager coordinates the task force by maintaining channels of communication between the functional managers (horizontal communication) and the CEO (vertical communication). The manager is involved in discussions concerning budget allocation, schedule and scope. The project manager also identifies user inputs by communicating with a representative from the Tenants Association.

      • HR Manager: The HR manager should perform a job analysis to understand the requirements of different employee roles as a result of the restructure process and examine the possibility of creating new roles.

      • Facilities Manager: The facilities manager will work with the team to identify the infrastructure recovery plan, cost allocation and integration with IT.

      • Accounting Manager: The accounting manager helps maintain the budget and time schedule for the restructuring process.

      • IT manager: The IT manager will work with the facilities manager to centralise IT operation across the organisation and develop necessary protocols for

    Project Control and Monitoring

    In order to manage the KFH restructuring, this study uses the control and monitoring strategies that are suggested in PRINCE2. Using an event-driven and time-driven method can help to advance project control, which is implemented to facilitate the delivery of a project’s goods. The adoption of an event-driven approach, an end-stage report, an exception plan, and a project initiation document are all recommended in this report. Progress feedback reports, such as highlight and checkpoint reports, are among the time-driven control tasks (Turner, 2007).

        • According to the Office of Government Commerce (2009), the project initiation document is the primary control of any project as it defines the scope, time and cost of the The document is used to ensure that an effective rationale for the project, clear defined project goals and project assessment parameters are set. Turner (2007) further indicates that the project initiation document can be used as a baseline document to help understand change management issues and progress assessment.

        • On the other hand, the end stage report is used to summarise the project as a whole, including stage-wise developments and identified risks. This report is compared with the project initiation document to help identify if there is a need to revise plans, amend the scope, or stop the project due to irregularities (Turner, 2007).

          • The exception plan helps control project scope by identifying possible actions required to recover from the effects of tolerance deviations. This plan is implemented if the initial project plan and the stage plans show great deviations and, if approved, will become the baseline project plan. The purpose of the plan is to ensure that the project can be controlled even if large deviations from the project process are identified (Office of Government Commerce, 2009).

          • Project checkpoint reports are presented by the project manager at defined stages in the project plan (initiation, implementation, and conclusion) in order to detail the status of work of every department involved in the project This is an internal document used for internal project control and monitoring (Hinde, 2012).

          • Highlight reports are submitted to different stakeholders (internal and external) to summarise the stage status of the project and monitor the project progress (Hinde, 2012).

        Qualities of a Good Manager

        The characteristics of an effective project manager have been extensively studied in the literature. several project management organizations provide several project management proficiencies and attributes of an effective project manager. A competent project manager should demonstrate high ratings in three areas: knowledge, performance, and skills. These areas are further divided into eleven subfactors by PMCD (Project Manager Competency Development) (PMI, 2013). In contrast, the International Project Management Association (IMPA) divides the skills of project managers into three skill categories: contextual, behavioral, and technical. These domains consist of 46 elements. (Varajao et al., 2013). There are three main attributes that a project manager should have:

          • Leadership: Leadership qualities of a successful project manager include vision, imagination, communication, resource management, motivation and intuitiveness (Muller and Turner, 2013).

          • Soft competencies: Project managers should have skills relating to personality traits, social skills and conflict management among employees (Fischer, 2011).

          • Technical knowledge: Project managers should also have extensive technical skills and experience including supplier management, resource allocation, project definition and change management (Kerzner, 2013).

          Project Team: Roles and Responsibilities

          According to Kerzner (2013), project teams are made up of different groups of people throughout the project management life cycle. Muller and Turner (201) further argue that understanding the roles and responsibilities of the key members of the project helps identify the human resource contribution to the project and ensure project success. The KFH restructuring project management taskforce involves four functional managers, the project manager and the CEO. The roles and tasks of different project teams within the restructuring process are identified in the following table.

          Table: Roles and Responsibilities of Personnel

          Designation Role Tasks Team Members
          ProjectManager The general manager coordinates the task force by maintaining channels ofcommunication between the functional managers. · Prepare project management plan· Identify specific risks and plan mitigation strategies· Monitor and control project progress· Highlight areas of correction and initiate required action· Complete specific project milestones· Coordinate with functional managers· Ensure project complies withprocedures and regulations of the organisation  
          Facilities Manager The facilities manager will work with the team to identify the infrastructure recovery plan, cost allocation and integration with IT. · Prepare documents to identify areas of restructure· Investigate availability and sustainability of infrastructure options· Supervise and coordinate the work of the maintenance manager and the operations manager· Examine the feasibility of creating a new role of energy manager· Coordinate with IT department to centralise the facilities management operational system · Maintenance manager· Procurement manager· Operations manager

          HR Manager The HR manager · Engage different functional · Training manager
            should perform job manager. to identify job roles of all · Recruitment manager
            analysis to understand employees  
            the requirements of · Plan and execute programmes to  
            different employee ensure employee adaptation to  
            roles as a result of the new job roles and restructure  
            restructuring process · Act as a contributing project team  
            and examine the member whose focus is the  
            possibility of creating employee agenda rather than  
            new roles. business agenda  
          IT Manager The IT manager will · Oversee ITM framework · Technology officer
            work with the facilities · Manage IT security · Security officer
            manager to centralise · Enable centralisation of IT  
            IT operation across the processes across the organisation  
            organisation and    
            develop necessary    
            protocols for    
            implementation.    
          Accounts The accounting · Manage finance of project · Budget and finance
          Manager manager helps restructure officer
            maintain the budget · Account for budget spending · Accounting officer
            and time schedule for · Provide inputs on financial risks  
            the restructuring    
            process    

          Project Planning

          According to PMBOK, project planning involves the initiation (project charter), the scope (definition) and the work breakdown structure (determination of cost, time and human resources required) (Saladis and Kerzner, 2011). This section will present a simple project plan for restructuring the KFH IT and Facilities department. The process of project planning involves input statements (project scope statement, process assets, and requirement documentation) to arrive at the work breakdown structure and the scope baseline.

          A work breakdown structure is most useful for project planning as it provides a deliverable orientated hierarchy of the different deconstructed project components and elements. The aim of this process is to ensure that the end product can be viewed by different stakeholders. The first step in project planning is the description of the different elements and identifying the different levels.

          Project Schedule, Estimation and Cost Control Project Schedule

          PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) is chosen as the most effective method to help identify the project schedule for the KFH project. According to Harrison and Lock (2004), PERT planning and scheduling involves the following stages.

              • Identification of specific activities and milestones: In the project planning phase, the WBS structure has identified the different tasks involved in the seven different phases of the project. Every activity (deliverable) is presented with a milestone.

              • Construction of a network diagram: The activity sequence of information can be used to create a network diagram to identify sequence and parallel activities and the associated milestones.

              • Estimation of time required for every activity: The use of PERT enables estimation of three different types of time estimates including the optimistic time, likely time and the pessimistic time. By using these attributes it is possible that the expected time for every activity is determined without bias.

              • Determination of critical path: The critical path is identified by adding the time for the activities in every sequence and identifying the longest path in a given project. This path helps identify the total time required for any given project.

            According to McConnell (2009), the use of a PERT analysis helps in the improvement, planning and scheduling of different activities, improved forecasting of associated resource requirements and identification of any repetition in the planning pattern. The

            following figure shows the PERT planning process for the facilities department restructure implementation. Similar PERT estimates need to be developed and coordinated with other activities to identify the PERT network and the critical path. In the following table, the PERT estimate provides the actual time that it would take to complete the particular task.

            Table: PERT – Planning

            ID Task Most Likely Min Max PERTEst.
            1 Job analysis in Facilities department 2.00 1.00 3.00 2.00
            2 Budget review for restructuring in Facilities department 2.00 1.00 3.00 2.00
            3 New role feasibility in Facilities department 3.00 2.00 4.00 3.00
            4 Create Energy Management department 4.00 3.00 4.00 3.83
            5 Budget review for implementing Energy Management department 1.00 0.50 2.00 1.08
            6 Implement IT process restructure in Facilities department 2.00 1.00 3.00 2.00

            Project Estimation

            Estimation is most important in project management as it helps identify the cost of completing the project and delivering the business capability. The use of top-down estimation is applicable to the current project scenario as it helps in identifying the overall cost of the project and is carried out early in the project life cycle (Sears et al., 2010). Ideally, estimation techniques should involve a top-down approach during the early stages of planning (like the current report), following which a bottom-up approach needs to be carried out to identify costs at task level. Such a method is most ideal when a response to a change in business environment is required (Li et al., 2009). In this method, the top and the middle managers (CEO, project manager and functional managers) determine the project schedule and project cost. Following this, the officers in different departments are expected to break down these estimates for the individual tasks.

            Table: Project Estimation

            ID Task Overall time allotted(Months) Overall budget allotted(£’000)
            1 Project planning 2.00 2.00
            2 Risk assessment 2.00 1.00
            3 Development and assessment 3.00 2.00
            4 Implementation 4.00 4.00
            5 Closure 1.00 0.50
            6 Evaluation 2.00 1.00

            Project Cost Control

            According to Kerzner (2013), a primary role of a project manager is to ensure that the cost, time and performance of the project are met. Pajares and Lopez-Paredes (2011) further argue that the probability of success is relatively less when proper tools are not available to promote cost control. This report proposes the use of earned value analysis to identify if project restructure at KFH is controlled at different stages. Before the implementation of cost control, it is important that planning, scheduling and estimating of costs are first carried out. Earned value analysis helps in comparing the budgeted cost of work scheduled against the earn value (i.e. the percentage of work completed). It also provides the cost and schedule variance by arriving at the actual cost of work  performed. This method is one of the most popular methods of cost control as it uses a standardised unit of measure of progress.

            Project Performance and Change Control

            The role of performance measurement in project management is vital as it helps assess the magnitude of deviations from the original plan of the project. Brandon (2010) indicates that successful measurement or evaluation of a project is dependent on the key performance indicators which are set at the start of the project. The project management indicators should be set in a manner such that they support business goals, provide the basis for decision making and are measurable. The following Figure 4 presents some of the key performance indicators which are used to determine the project performance and arrive at an evaluation of its success. Change control is important in project management as it helps members of the project team modify the scope of the project by using specific controls and policies due to deviations and unavoidable circumstances (Wang et al., 2008). The process of change control has been described as part of project control in previous sections. This section will identify the steps involved in the process (Turner, 2007).

                • Definition of change request: This step involves the documentation of the request for change. This document contains information n the request, reasons for the request, conditions for success and expected completion.

                  • Submission of change request and review: The change request is submitted to the restructure taskforce and should be approved before the change is

                  • Define options: Options are defined using exception plans (previously defined).

                  • Implementation: Options are implemented and the exception plan is adopted as the primary document for project evaluation.

                Conclusion

                Together with a project strategy, budget, timeline, project evaluation, and participant roles, this report has effectively recommended an acceptable project organization structure to the KFH board.

                References:

                    • Brandon Jr, D. M. (2010). Project performance measurement. The Wiley Guide to Project Control9, 75.

                    • Brynjolfsson, E., Renshaw, A., & Van Alstyne, M. (2012). The matrix of change. Sloan Management Review. v28.

                    • Fisher, E. (2011). What practitioners consider to be the skills and behaviours of an effective people project manager. International Journal of Project Management29(8), 994-1002.

                    • Harrison, F. L., & Lock, D. (2004). Advanced project management: a structured approach. Gower Publishing, Ltd..

                    • Kerzner, H. R. (2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. Wiley.

                    • Li, Y. F., Xie, M., & Goh, T. N. (2009). A study of project selection and feature weighting for analogy based software cost estimation. Journal of Systems and Software82(2), 241-252.

                    • McConnell, S. (2009). Software project survival guide. Microsoft press.

                    • Office of Government Commerce. (2009). Directing successful projects with PRINCE2. The Stationery Office.

                    • Pajares, J., & Lopez-Paredes, A. (2011). An extension of the EVM analysis for project monitoring: The Cost Control Index and the Schedule Control Index.International Journal of Project Management29(5), 615-621.

                    • PMI (2013) A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide)

                    • (5th Edn.) Project Management Institute Inc. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania

                    • Saladis, F. P., & Kerzner, H. R. (2011). Bringing the PMBOK guide to life: a companion for the practicing project manager. John Wiley & Sons.

                    • Sears, S. K., Sears, G. A., & Clough, R. H. (2010). Construction Project Management: A practical guide to field construction management. John Wiley & Sons.

                    • Söderlund, J. (2011). Pluralism in project management: navigating the crossroads of specialization and fragmentation. International Journal of Management Reviews13(2), 153-176.

                    • Turner, J. R. (Ed.). (2007). Gower handbook of project management. Gower Publishing, Ltd..

                    • Varajão, J., & Cruz-Cunha, M. M. (2013). Using AHP and the IPMA Competence Baseline in the project managers selection process. International Journal of Production Research, (ahead-of-print), 1-13.

                    • Wang, E. T., Ju, P. H., Jiang, J. J., & Klein, G. (2008). The effects of change control and management review on software flexibility and project performance.Information & management45(7), 438-443.

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